- Different to uncoupled Miocene ocean simulations (i.e. Butzin et al., 2011) the meridional overturning circulation remains rather unaffected when the Panama Seaway is open.
- There are only small changes of simulated deep-sea δ13C distributions between the various model scenarios.
- Simulations and observations of deep-sea δ13C largely agree for the late Miocene (Figure 1) but disagree for the middle Miocene (Figure 2).
- The disagreement points to carbon cycle changes during the middle Miocene.
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Butzin, M., G. Lohmann, and T. Bickert (2011): Miocene ocean circulation inferred from marine carbon cycle modeling combined with benthic isotope records. Paleoceanography, 26, PA1203, doi:10.1029/2009PA001901.
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